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LIFE & TIMES OF JESUS: Citation & Works Cited & Format, Etc.

This LibGuide is to assist with your historical research into the life and times of Jesus.

Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide

For any questions on MLA (MLA format, in-text citations, Works Cited, etc.) check out the Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide.

Citation Generators (for MLA, etc.)

If your teacher permits, you may want to try using a citation creation helper/generator (though you should know that some teachers may have an issue with these sites because they want you to be sure that you understand the citation process itself; plus, it is possible that a site may not have the most current, up-to-date information, so consider this your disclaimer).

If your teacher does permit use of citation generator sites (and most do), you still need to understand the citation process and know all of the pertinent information for your source to complete the process correctly (author, publication place, publication date, etc.); however, citation sites such as those below greatly assist with mechanics such as punctuation placement, etc.). Be sure you double-check the generated citation...and add/edit any necessary information.

FREE CITATION SERVICES FOUND BELOW: Listed below are some commonly used citation makers. Click on the symbol to access...and then follow the site's directions.  Keep in mind that there are various citation styles such as MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.  Your teacher is most likely using what is called MLA form (Modern Languages Association).

Copyright & Fair Use Resources (Faculty and/or Student Use)

See the links below for helpful information on copyright, fair use, and more. This information is intended for faculty and/or student use. 

COPYRIGHT: Copyright applies to any creative physical or electronic work. Copyright is applied immediately upon creation, although certain steps must be taken to secure it through the US copyright office. This is legal protection and prevents the work from being used without the creator's permission. There are some circumstances where you can use copyrighted work without express permission; see these below. When in doubt, always double-check!

FAIR USE: Fair use is an exception/limitation to copyright law. Works can be used for educational purposes without permission if at least one of four guiding principles are at play. To decide, ask yourself these questions: (1) Use: Is the use of the work transformative? ( Yes = Fair Use); (2) Type: Is the work informational/factual in nature? ( Yes = Fair Use); (3) Amount: Is the use minimal? ( Yes = Fair Use); (4) Impact: Does the use negatively impact the copyright holder ' s ability to profit from the work? ( No = Fair Use).

PUBLIC DOMAIN: Public Domain refers to works that are not subject to copyright protection. There are three cases where this applies: (1) Older works - copyrights expire 70 years after the death of the creator (NOT from the point of creation). (2) Exempt works - general knowledge resources (like encyclopedias) and works that weren 't copyrighted when they were created. (3) Released works - the creator willingly chose to release the work for public use at any point; this can be permanent or temporary. 

OPEN RESOURCES: In order to be considered an " open " resource (i.e. FREE), it must meet two criteria: (1) gratis = the content/resources are provided at no cost AND (2) libre = you are free to do what you wish with the content. Openness gives you the freedom to - Retain - Revise - Reuse - Remix - Redistribute the resources to fit your needs.

ATTRIBUTION & OPEN LICENSING: Works that are under public domain, fair use, or open resource designation still require you to attribute credit to the creator. You can do so by noting the title, author, source, and licensing information (if applicable) or using a citation. When publishing your own work, you may decide to put it in the public domain (users may use your work however they wish without citing you) or you may want to place it under an open license. This option allows others to use your work without seeking permission under copyright law, but they still must cite you as the creator.

BEST WORD OF ADVICE: WHEN IN DOUBT, REACH OUT!!!! As a student, if you are unsure, ask your teacher or librarian. As an adult (faculty/staff member) use be sure to follow copyright. If you're unsure or if a publication or resource you need is out of print and you cannot buy it (e.g., an out-of-print book), reach out to the publishing company and ask permission to make copies. Here's how to ask/get permission.

Free Creative Commons & Free Image Resources

CREATIVE COMMONS: The emergence of the internet spawned an innovation in copyright management called Creative Commons, which allows the creators of photos, videos, and text to apply transparent copyright rules and make the content available broadly.

HOW TO FIND CREATIVE COMMONS IMAGES: All images are licensed and subject to copyright unless under the domain of Creative Commons. To help you find Creative Commons Images, use Google's Tool's setting by doing the following: (1) search for an image > (2) go under "Images" > click Tools > select Usage Rights > select Creative Commons license to filter images.

GOVERNMENT SITES & AGENCIESNASA, the National Archivesthe Smithsonianprimary sources from the Library of Congress, and materials from state or local government agencies have many resources available for teacher and student use.

Free Audio/Sound Resources

Free Print/Book/Audio Book Resources

REMINDER: If required by your teacher, don't forget to turn your paper into

What is MLA Citation? (Just in case you're curious.)

What Is MLA Style/MLA Format?

MLA = Modern Languages Association

All fields of research agree on the need to document scholarly borrowings, but documentation conventions vary because of the different needs of scholarly disciplines. MLA style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. Generally simpler and more concise than other styles, MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work.

MLA style has been widely adopted by schools, academic departments, and instructors for over half a century. The association's guidelines are also used by over 1,100 scholarly and literary journals, newsletters, and magazines and by many university and commercial presses. The MLA's guidelines are followed throughout North America and in Brazil, China, India, Japan, Taiwan, and other countries around the world.

Just so you should be aware that there are other format styles such as APA (American Psychological Association), AMA (American Medical Association), Turabian, Chicago Style, etc.




  • A quotation from or reference to a book, paper, website article, author, etc. particularly in a scholarly work; a standardized format that contains information about a source cited in one's research product.


  • In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to document any external sources used within a document (unless the material cited is considered general knowledge).
  • Parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed on the Works Cited page, which is located at the end of the document.
  • In most cases, the parenthetical citations include the author's last name and the specific page number for the information cited.


  •  An alphabetical listing of citations in MLA format for all sources cited in a research product.
  •  Also referred to as references or as a bibliography.


  • A standardized format for citing information from outside sources within the text of the paper itself.
  • In-text citations consist of two parts: signal phrases and parenthetical references.